According to Galatians, the jurisdiction of the Torah reached its termination point with the arrival of Jesus – The “seed” of Abraham.
In responding to claims that Gentiles must be circumcised, Paul appealed first to the common experience of the Spirit received by the Galatians. Did they receive the gift in response to a “hearing of faith” or “from the works of the Law?” Having begun in the Spirit, why did they now seek “to complete” their faith on the basis of “flesh,” in this case, by submitting to circumcision?
Next, he cited the example of Abraham, who was “reckoned righteous from his faith,” and not from the rite of circumcision that he received later. Thus, Abraham became the “father” of all who are “from faith.” In contrast, those who are from “the works of the Law are under a curse.” As the Law itself attests – “Cursed is everyone who continues not in all things that are written in the book of the law.” Had not Israel committed itself to do everything that Yahweh had commanded? – (Exodus 24:3, Deuteronomy 27:26, Galatians 3:5-10).
Jesus, the true “seed of Abraham,” came to redeem us from the “curse of the Law” by becoming a curse on our behalf so that the “blessing of Abraham,” the “promise of the Spirit,” might come upon Gentiles, and in Christ Jesus through faith, and not from the “works of the law.”
Paul described the custom that “a man’s confirmed covenant” cannot be altered after the fact. So also, the “promise” made to Abraham and to “his seed,” Jesus. The covenant was confirmed by God 430 years before the Law was given at Sinai, therefore, the Mosaic legislation did not add to or subtract from the original promise, which took precedence over the later legislation. The inheritance was based on the previous “promise,” not on the Law given centuries later – (Galatians 3:15-19).
Thus, the Law was supplemental – An added interim stage to deal with “transgressions until the seed should come,” the one to whom the promise was made. The Law was incapable of “making alive,” otherwise, “righteousness would have been in law.” The Law “confined all things under sin that the promise might come on the basis of the faith of Jesus Christ,” and given to all who respond in faith.
Before the arrival of Jesus, the Torah was Israel’s custodian – “unto Christ” – But he, having come, “no longer are we under the custodian.” The custodianship of the Law ceased, and therefore, no longer can there be “Jew or Greek, bond or free, male and female.” All who are in Christ are “Abraham’s seed, according to promise, heirs,” regardless of ethnicity, gender or social status. The social divisions inherent in the Law no longer apply. But a return to “the works of the Law” would rebuild those same barriers – (Galatians 3:23-29).
Paul provided a similar contrast in the fourth chapter of Galatians. While still a minor, the heir is “under guardians and stewards until the day appointed of by his father.” Likewise, prior to the arrival of Jesus, “we were infants, in servitude under the elementary principles of the world until the fullness of time,” at which point he came to “redeem them who were under Law, that we might receive the adoption.” Therefore, no longer are we servants, but sons and heirs – (Galatians 4:1-6).
Thus, Paul argued on his understanding that the jurisdiction of the Torah ended with the arrival of the promised “seed,” Jesus Christ. If the Mosaic legislation is still in force, and if obedience to it remains mandatory for right standing before God, then Paul’s entire argument falls apart. Thus, his earlier declaration: If acquittal before God is based on the “works of the law,” then Jesus died in vain – (Galatians 2:17-21).
Put another way, if we are still “under the Law,” then we are NOT heirs according to the promise and, therefore, we remain under servitude to the “elementary principles of the world,” the old covenant is still in force, and the new one has yet to be inaugurated. And if this is true, we are all still dead in our sins – (Romans 10:4 – “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes”).
Anyone who puts himself under the jurisdiction of the Mosaic legislation will experience servitude, not liberty. To return to it means the abandonment of the “faith of Jesus Christ” and renders his death on Calvary pointless.